Indoor Hydroponics: From Lettuce Seedling to Harvest with LED Auto-Lighting PVC Pipe Equipment

There are quite a few people who have been doing hydroponics using PVC pipes, and I am one of them.
I’ve been growing hydroponics using PVC pipes in a half-underground space, but due to the nature of the half-underground space, I can hardly use sunlight, and I’ve been relying on LED fluorescent lights to grow lettuce.
I decided that it would be a shame not to use the sunlight even though we have the sun, so I forced myself to create a space near the sunny window on the second floor by drastically decluttering things, and decided to make a second PVC pipe hydroponics system there.
Here is the record.
See the video below.

There are three power sources used: a pumping pump, an air pump, and a smart plug that connects to the LED lights.
The pump sends water up to the top PVC pipe, and the water is circulated by the pump and gravity, while the water tank at the bottom can be used to grow seedlings.

Creating the base floor

I don’t have any pictures for the article, so I’ll explain with the time code of the video attached.
0:00 Creating the base floor

Use wood to make a floor for the water tank.
I used a plastic wardrobe case that can be easily processed and is inexpensive, so I asked the home center to cut it so that it would be the width of the wardrobe case plus about 20 cm.
A single piece of companel is not strong enough, so I inserted 2×2 wood under the companel to reinforce it.
If the length of the board is longer than the length of the window, the vegetables planted at the edge will not be exposed to sunlight, so I made the length of the base as long as the window.
Since we were planning to use PVC pipe parts to branch the system and operate it in two rows, there would be a difference in the amount of sunlight between the row near the window and the row on the room side.
I installed casters on the base in case the difference was so great that I had to flip the PVC pipe system. So far, I haven’t used them much.

Making a frame to put the PVC pipe on.

0:37 Making a frame for PVC pipe

We will make a frame for installing three rows of PVC pipe equipment assembled in two rows.
However, if the PVC pipes are too close to each other, the vegetables will bump into the PVC pipes when they grow, so we decided to make three rows with room to spare.
The frame is made of two sets of 2x2s assembled in a “U” shape, turned 90 degrees, and the upper part is fixed with more 2x2s to prevent the frame from wobbling.

Fixing the frame to the floor using an angle

0:49 Fixing the floor and frame

Use the angle to fix the floor and the frame you made.
Normally, we can fix the floor by screwing from the back side of the floor, but when it comes time to dismantle the hydroponics equipment, we will have to turn the equipment itself over.
This time, I used angles to fix the floor and frame so that I can dismantle it smartly from above.

Processing the drainage hose for the water storage tank

1:21 Processing drainage hose for water storage tank

The drainage part of the water storage tank is made by combining a female drainage hose used in washing machines or under sinks and a male plumbing part of the same length.
The threaded part of the plumbing component is too long to fit into the drain hose (female), so I cut it off so that it fits perfectly after turning it in.
Because it is a small part, it is difficult to cut it with a saw while holding it down by hand.
I cut it while holding it in place with the vise I bought when I made the first hydroponic system before.
Also, if you have a lot of opportunities to cut PVC pipes (there are very few people who do), you can prepare a special pipe saw to cut PVC pipes very well.
You can also use a wood saw to cut the pipe, but it will not work because it will catch too much.
After cutting, use a hole saw to make a hole as small as or slightly smaller than the plumbing component.
Insert the plumbing parts into the holes and connect them to the drain hose.
Since this is the part where water flows directly, we caulked the inside and outside to prevent water leakage.

Cutting the PVC pipe

3:09 Cutting PVC pipe

Cut the PVC pipe according to the length of the window.
This time we needed a total of six PVC pipes in two rows and three tiers.
They are sold in lengths of 1m, 2m, 4m, etc. at home centers, but the longer the length, the lower the unit price, so if you want a large quantity, buy 4m and cut it yourself.
If you want a large quantity, you can buy 4 meters and cut it yourself. As I recall, 2 meters is 1300 yen, but 4 meters is like 1600 yen.
Using a vise and a pipe saw, I cut it to fit the width of the window.

Painting the floor, frame, and PVC pipe

3:38 Painting the frame

If you don’t think about preservative treatment, you don’t really need to paint it, but this time I wanted to make it a little cooler, so I painted the frame and floor dark brown.
I wanted to give it a foreign feel, so I decided to paint the PVC pipe white, and after a bit of research, I found out that the paint can be applied to PVC pipe as well.
After painting it and letting it dry for a day, I lightly scrubbed the surface of the PVC pipe with my fingernail and it peeled off, so I thought, “What is that information?
This is the reason why only the top PVC pipe device in the video is white in color.

Assembling the PVC pipe

4:13 Assembling the PVC pipe

Water enters through the spout, branches off to the left and right, passes through two rows of PVC pipes, and then merges again to be drained, and the drained water is poured into the spout of the second PVC pipe device.
Use branching parts and elbows to form a “L” shape.
I didn’t do it because my hidden theme was “dismantleable device”, but it would be better to use PVC pipe adhesive on the connection part or caulk it after the connection to prevent leakage.
In this design, we don’t use such bonded materials, but even if a leak occurs, the water storage tank underneath is designed to catch the leaked water.
Another advantage of not using glue is that the water level in the PVC pipe can be controlled.
The bifurcated parts are also used at the confluence, and the angle of the bifurcated parts at the confluence can be changed by turning them by hand, for example, upward to raise the water level or downward to lower it.
If the water level is too high, the roots will not get enough oxygen and root rot will occur, so I decided to assemble it in a way that does not require glue so that I can change the water level later.

Drilling holes in the PVC pipe

5:51 Drilling holes in PVC pipe

We will use the hole saw to make a hole in the PVC pipe for planting the seedlings we have grown.
The seedlings are grown in seedling pots in the water storage tank, and we want to plant the seedlings in the PVC pipe with the seedling pots, so let’s choose a blade that can make holes large enough to hold the seedling pots.
In order to avoid overlapping leaves, I spaced the holes about 15 cm apart for the middle-grown seedlings, and about 30 cm apart for the larger lettuce.
The top row had 20 holes in two rows of 10 holes each, and the middle and bottom rows of PVC pipes had 10 holes in two rows of 5 holes each.
If burrs appear on the cut edges of the holes (they always do), polish them with a file.
Shavings and scraps will accumulate inside the PVC pipe, so rinse the inside with water.

Installing the PVC pipe kit

6:48 Installing the PVC pipe kit
Place the assembled PVC pipe device on the frame you created.
Insert the upper drainage hose into the middle water inlet, the middle drainage hose into the lower water inlet, and the lower drainage hose into the water storage tank.

Installation of the pumping pump

7:24 Installation of pumping pump
We will install a pump to send water from the water storage tank to the upper PVC pipe.
To prevent the formation of algae, the hose to be attached to the pump is not a transparent one, but an “algae-proof” one.
Also, as for this device, the height will be about 180 cm.
When buying a pumping pump, be careful to choose a product whose maximum pumping distance exceeds the height of the device, or you will not be able to send water upward.
After attaching the algae-proof hose to the pump, extend the hose to the water inlet of the topmost hydroponics equipment and plug it in.

Processing the surface of the water storage tank

8:16 Processing the water storage tank
I use a plastic transparent case as a substitute for the water storage tank, but if I use it as it is, the sunlight will directly irradiate the water inside the case, and algae will form just like the hose.
In order to block out the sunlight, I used an aluminum sheet (leisure sheet? To block out the sunlight, use an aluminum sheet (leisure sheet? heat insulation sheet?) and double-sided tape. and double-sided tape.

Processing Styrofoam for seedlings

8:38 Processing Styrofoam for seedlings
We grow seedlings in a water storage tank, but if the height of the support for the seedling pot is fixed, when the water level drops as the water decreases, the roots may not be able to reach the water and the seedlings may die if they notice.
By making a hole in the styrofoam large enough to hold the seedling pot, setting the seedling pot, and floating the styrofoam in the water tank, even if the water level drops, the styrofoam will drop with the water level.
Measure the length of the bottom of the wardrobe and cut out a piece of styrofoam a little smaller than that.
The Styrofoam used in the video is Styrofoam.
If you use Styrofoam, the cut surface will be ragged and it will not look good.
I wondered if I should use a pen-type styrofoam cutter, but I was reluctant to use a styrofoam cutter to make 60 holes, so I changed to styrofoam.

Pouring in water with liquid fertilizer

9:26 Pouring in water with liquid fertilizer
Now that most of the preparations are in place, I start adding water with liquid fertilizer to the water storage tank.
I use the liquid fertilizer from the old Otsuka House, and adjust the EC value to be around 1.3.
Once the water tank is full, I turn on the pump to send water to the upper PVC pipe system, and when the water in the tank runs out, I turn off the pump and fill up the tank again.

Start water circulation

9:46 Water circulation begins
As you repeat the process, the inside of the upper PVC pipe device will fill with water, and the drained water will go to the middle device, and when the middle device is filled, the water will go to the lower device, and when the lower device is also full, the water will come back to the storage tank.
Keep adding water until the water is able to circulate.

Set the styrofoam and seedlings.

10:28 Set the styrofoam and seedlings
Set the seedlings in the styrofoam that we cut out and poked holes in earlier.
Since we had already grown sponge seedlings by planting germinated seeds in the sponge, we inserted the sponge seedlings into the seedling pots and inserted the pots into the holes in the Styrofoam.
The seedlings are then inserted into the holes in the Styrofoam.

Installing LED lights

11:47 LED light installation
In order to grow lettuce with sunlight, we built a hydroponic system near the window, but it is still difficult to get enough light indoors depending on the angle of sunlight and time of day.
In order to compensate for the lack of sunlight (although we will also use sunlight), we will install LED fluorescent lamps.
I thought it would be convenient to have something that doesn’t need a light fixture and emits light just by plugging it into an outlet, so I connected them with a connecting cord and used them.
I used cheap LED fluorescent lamps that cost about 1000 yen each, but they work fine.
The electricity bill is about 300 yen per lamp after 24 hours of continuous illumination for a month.

Setting the lighting time of the smart plug

12:13 Setting the lighting time for the smart plug
We can get a good amount of sunlight in the morning and evening, but during the rest of the day, we would like to use LED lighting.
It’s a hassle to manually turn on and off the lights every time, so we made it so that the lights can be turned on and off automatically when the set time comes via smart plug.
A timer type light can be used instead, but even during the daytime, for example, when it is cloudy and there is not enough sunlight, the lights can be turned on manually from the app.

Experiment with turning on the lights automatically

12:48 Experiment of automatic lighting
I experimented to see if the lights would actually turn on at the specified time.
I set the lights to turn on at 4:30 in the evening, and they turned on successfully, although there was a time lag of about 5 seconds.
I set the lights to turn off at 5:00 in the morning, and I haven’t been able to check the timing of the lights turning off (since I’m still sleeping at that time), but when I woke up in the morning and looked at the LEDs, they were gone, so I don’t think there is a problem here either.

Things I failed to do but have improved

Since warm air rises upward, there is quite a difference in room temperature between the half-basement space and the second floor space.
I didn’t know that the higher the room temperature, the higher the water temperature, and the higher the water temperature, the harder it is for oxygen to dissolve into the water.
After a day or two of planting the seedlings in the hydroponic system on the second floor, the lettuce gradually lost its vigor and began to show symptoms of root rot.
Since we were only running one air pump in the small tank, it seemed that we were running out of oxygen.
First, I changed the air pump to a high-powered one.
In addition, I turned the parts in the drainage section to slightly lower the water level in the PVC pipe so that the roots could be directly exposed to air.
After cutting off the rotten roots, I planted the plant again and a few days later, I could see new white healthy looking roots growing out of the sponge.


[mac Big Sur]If you want to record sound from your PC, use BlackHole.

I tried to install Soundflower on my PC (OS: Big Sur) to record the sound coming out of my M1 model macbook, but
I tried to install Soundflower on my PC (OS: Big Sur) to record the sound coming out of my M1 model mac, but I got a message that “Soundflower.pkg” cannot be opened because the developer has not been confirmed.
After some research on Google, I found that
After some Googling, I found out that the solution is to go to [Settings] -> [Security & Privacy], allow downloads, and click [Open As].
I’m sure everyone (including me) has found a solution like this.

I’m not sure if you’ve tried to install Soundflower on your macbook.

If you can’t, you can’t, so install BlackHole instead of Soundflower.

Steps to install BlackHole as a replacement for Soundflower

First, proceed to the official website.

BlackHole official website
From the top, enter [email address], [first name], and [last name], then click [Subscribe for Free Mac Download].

If your email address is entered correctly, you will soon receive an email from BlackHole with a download link, so click on the download link.

Open the link in the email to open the BlackHole download page, and click on the “BlackHole 16ch v0.2.9” to start downloading.

Click on the downloaded pkg file to open the installation window, and follow the steps in the installer to install the software.
After the installation is complete, you will be asked if you want to put the installer in the trash, but you don’t need it anymore, so throw it away.

Where is it? To open the installed BlackHole

I tried to start up the installed BlackHole, but I couldn’t find it when I looked into [Applications].
The name of the application is “Audio MIDI Settings”.
If you want to open it from the Dock application, go to [Applications] -> [Launchpad] -> [Other] -> [Audio MIDI Settings].
If you want to open it from Finder, you can go to [Finder] -> [Applications] -> [Utilities] -> [Audio MIDI Settings].

How to set up BlackHole to record sound from your macbook

Now that it is installed, let’s configure it.

When you open Audio MIDI Settings, a window like the one above will open. Click the [+] mark in the lower left corner and select [Create Multiple Output Devices].

Check the “BlackHole 16ch” checkbox.

Right-click on the [Multiple Output Devices] you just created to open the window shown above, and click [Use this sound output device].
You can now close the Audio MIDI Settings window.

Set the microphone to BlackHole in QuickTime Player.

Right-click on QuickTime Player and open [New Audio Recording].

Click on the red record button to the right to select the microphone you want to use.

If you can’t record, please reboot after installation.

Try playing sound from your MacBook on Youtube, itunes, or anything else.
If the volume gauge of the QuickTime audio recording swings, you have succeeded.
If not, you may need to restart your computer.
Restarting the computer may help if the recording doesn’t work right after installing BlackHole or after changing Audio MIDI settings.
If the volume gauge is not moving, even if you can click the record button, no sound will be recorded.

When using BlackHole, you cannot use the function keys to adjust the volume.

When the microphone is set to [BlackHole 16ch], you will not be able to adjust the volume or mute the microphone using the function keys.

If you want to adjust the volume using the keyboard such as [F10], [F11], [F12], etc., such as when you want to check the recorded audio file, please go to [System Preferences] -> [Sound] and change it back to the built-in speaker of your macbook.

What to do if you hear a blurry sound when you play back a recorded audio file?

This is a little off topic, but for example, when using Google Translate on your computer, you can only select a female voice, but if you want to have it read out loud in a male voice, you can use Siri instead.
How to use Siri to read out a sentence in a male voice
You can also use BlackHole to save the voice as an audio file, which you can then use to create a narration for Youtube.
End of story
When you successfully record and play back the audio file, you may find that the sound is blurred, or as if it was recorded in a large room.
I don’t know how to describe it, but it’s not exactly howling.

If you feel the above indescribable discomfort when you play the resulting audio file, try changing the recording quality of the audio recording in QuickTime Player from [High] to [Highest].
I tried various things in the Audio MIDI settings under [Speaker Configuration], but no matter what I did, it didn’t improve, but just changing it to [Highest] usually did.

Summary of using BlackHole with Big Sur

I used BlackHole to record the sound of my PC with the result that I could not install Soundflower with Big Sur.
I had to reboot to get it to work (or was that just me?). But I was able to record without any problems.
I’m sure many people are in the process of switching to a macbook with M1 chip, so I hope this will be useful for those who have no choice but to switch to BlackHole.








How to make your own water level sensor for hydroponics. Getting ready for automatic water supply using solenoid valves.

We are going to try hydroponics using PVC pipes on one wall of the room.
The water is stored in a water tank and circulated through the PVC pipe by a pump, but as the vegetables grow and evaporate naturally, the amount of water in the tank diminishes (I haven’t reached that point yet, but…).
(I haven’t reached that level yet, but…) To prevent moss growth, the water tank is covered with a light-shielding aluminum sheet, so you can’t see the amount of water in the tank at a glance.
In such a case, it would be nice if there was a system to automatically supply water as the water level decreases.

A water level sensor is necessary for the automatic water supply system you dream of.
You don’t need it yet! If you say, “You don’t need it yet!” that’s as far as I’ll go, but since I’m going to go out of my way, I decided to make one myself.
The materials needed to make the sensor are quite expensive, but each part is pretty cheap, so I think you can make it yourself at a reasonable price.
To watch the video, click on the link below.

Here you go.

Prepare the parts necessary for making your own water level sensor.

First, let’s prepare the materials.
Water level sensor module

KK moon 9V-12V AC/DC センサモジュール 水コントロールモジュール 水位検知センサー 排水ポンプ水コントロールモジュール 液体レベルコントローラー
There seem to be many types of water level sensor modules, but I bought this one because I felt like I could use any of them.
Electrician’s Pliers
These are used for stripping plastic cords and wires, and for snapping terminals on copper wires.
If you’re doing electronics work, it’s a good idea to have one.
I bought mine at Home Depot, and they are the same electric pliers as in the link.
AC adapter and DC jack cable
This product itself is very cheap, but it takes a long time to arrive, probably because it is shipped directly from China or something.
You might want to buy a few extra so you can use them when you get the urge to make your own.
Various other things
There are many other things you can do, but you should be able to find most of them at a home improvement store.
You can buy male plugs, female plugs, bar terminals, ring terminals, insulation caps, vinyl cord, wire, bolts and nuts, etc., depending on what you want to make.

Process the vinyl cord so that it forms a T-shape.

The white female plug on the left of the picture is connected to the device you want to turn on and off depending on the water level, and the white male plug on the right is connected to the outlet.
Let’s modify it so that it looks like this.

Split the vinyl cord.

Cut the vinyl cord to the appropriate length and split it to the left and right.
Make a “split and united” cord that is about the same length as the cord stretched to the left and right.

Peel off the vinyl cord sheathing.

We will use electric pliers to strip the cord insulation.
Strip the cord in six places: two on the left, two on the right, and two on the bottom.
It can be done with scissors or cutters, but it’s a pain.

Clamp the ring terminal to the copper wire that came out after peeling.

Peel off the coating to reveal the copper wire.
Insert the copper wire into the ring terminal and tighten it with electric pliers.
The ring terminals are just for easy connection to the male and female plugs on the left and right sides, and you don’t need them to twist the copper wire.

Screwing the ring terminal to the plug

Put the plug screw in the hole of the ring terminal and tighten it as you go.
Connect both the left and right plugs and put the lid back on.

Attach the bar terminal to the water level sensor connection.

Slightly split the vinyl cord on the bottom side to make a two-way connector.
As with the ring terminals, put a stick terminal on each copper wire and put an insulating cap on the terminals to prevent them from touching each other.
If the copper wire is stranded (a bunch of thin copper wires), it is likely to come loose when connected to the water level sensor, so I decided to use a bar-shaped terminal this time.

Connecting the processed vinyl cord to the water level sensor

Connect the vinyl cord to which you just connected the stick terminal to the number 2 and 3 of the water level sensor.
The screws are small, so I used a precision screwdriver to tighten them.
I wonder if there is such a thing as which one to plug into which.
In my case, I plugged the cord extending from the male plug side into number 2 and the cord from the female plug into number 3, and it worked fine.

Connecting the colored wires to the water level sensor

Attach the wire sensor, which measures the water level by placing it directly into the water, to the blue part on the other side of the vinyl cord.
For each color, all you have to do is strip off the coating of the part to be connected, and attach the stick terminal and insulation cap, so the work is the same as for the cord.
In the picture above, the black wire indicates the lowest water level, the red wire is the highest water level, and the yellow wire is the junction to start feeding power to the device or not.

Connect the AC adapter to the DC jack cable and connect it to the water level sensor.

Attach a stick terminal and an insulating cap to the end of the DC jack cable as shown in the photo above so that it can be connected to the water level sensor.

Plug the DC jack cable into the photo area.
The water level sensor itself will be powered by this AC adapter.

I drilled holes in the plastic case to fix the main unit.
I also drilled holes in the side of the case and threaded the various cables through.
I’m sure I’m explaining how I fixed it quickly, but this was the hardest part of the whole process…

Creating the sensor part, connecting the devices and checking the operation.

Create the sensor part that is actually put into the water.
The part that senses the lowest water level is the longest straw, the junction where the power supply starts is in the middle, and the line that stops the power supply is the shortest straw part.
Pass each wire through the mouth of the straw and leave the tip of the stripped wire sticking out from the end of the straw.
Now let’s check the operation.
Plug the AC adapter, which is the power source for the water level sensor, and the male plug of the vinyl cord into the outlet.
Connect the female plug of the vinyl cord to the male plug of the device you want to move depending on the water level.

Let’s put the wire sensor into the water.
It is a little difficult to see in the picture, but the black and yellow wires are submerged in the water.
The tip of the yellow wire in the middle, which is the branch point, is submerged in water (indicating that the water level is not decreasing), so the rear light is not being powered.

I lifted the sensor by hand.
The sensor is usually fixed in place, but since this was an energized experiment, I didn’t mind.
I lifted up the sensor by hand, that is, I intentionally made the water level low, but as soon as the yellow wire, which is the junction point, came out of the water, the power started to flow and the light came on.
As soon as the yellow wire, which is the junction point, came out of the water, the power was turned on and the light came on. When the yellow wire was submerged again in this state, the power remained on.
When the red wire, which detects the highest water level (overflow prevention), is submerged, the power stops.
The plan for the future is to connect the male plug of the solenoid valve connected to the water supply to the female plug of the vinyl cord, and sink the wire sensor into the water tank.
The end of the hose of the solenoid valve is inside the water storage tank, and when the water level in the tank drops below the middle of the wire sensor, the solenoid valve will open and water will be supplied automatically.
The water level in the tank rises as the water is supplied, and when it reaches the top sensor, the water supply is stopped… It’s very dreamy.
At this point, the water level sensor has not been used yet, and I feel like I’m getting ahead of myself, but I’m happy to say that I succeeded.

[Hydroponics] Lettuce has root rot! Trying to revive it & urgent environmental improvement

I was growing lettuce and small tomatoes outdoors in a hydroponic system made of PVC pipes.
After a few days of moving the whole system indoors, the vegetables seemed to be somewhat listless.

I had a bad feeling, so I checked the roots and found that it had root rot.
It looked like kelp in miso soup.
I heard that once a plant has root rot, you can’t get it back, but I thought I could cut off the rotten part and revive it by using a method like cuttings.
I would also like to solve the problems caused by moving the plant indoors, such as lack of sunlight, lack of oxygen in the water, and the development of water moss.
To watch the video, click on the link below.

Here you go.

Cutting the roots of rotten lettuce and small tomatoes with scissors

I started to cut the rotten part of the lettuce with scissors.
In the photo above, I was too scared to cut the rotten root, but I heard that there is no possibility of curing root rot, so I cut the entire rotten part.

The roots of the small tomatoes weren’t as bad as the lettuce, but they did look rotten in places.
I cut off the suspicious parts with scissors.

I wrapped the cut lettuce in a sponge to keep it from falling over and set it in a bucket so that the cut ends and stems were immersed in water with liquid fertilizer.
Hopefully, new roots will grow…
As for the lettuce, I’ll give it a few days to see how it does.
I cut off the rotten roots of the tomatoes and put them back in the multi-stage hydroponic system made of PVC pipes in the room.
I’ll keep an eye on them for a few days.

The roots of the lettuce did not recover, and I gave up on the small tomatoes.

It was a disappointing result.
As for the lettuce, five or six short and thin roots grew from the part that was soaked in water, but the growth of the roots was slow, so the lettuce itself wilted due to the lack of water.
The mini-tomatoes were grown in a multi-stage system, but upon closer examination, since we were circulating water and growing other vegetables at the same time, the rotten roots might have an adverse effect on the entire water supply.
In order to avoid the total destruction of the vegetables, we also removed the small tomatoes.
As a result, it was tough to revive the roots of the vegetables that had suffered from root rot at this stage…unfortunately.

Environmental improvement #1: Supplying oxygen to the water with an air pump

Someone somewhere told me that circulating water makes the water move, which in turn makes it easier for oxygen to reach the water.
I was relieved by that, but it resulted in the root rot that happened.
So I would like to use an air pump for the aquarium, air tubes, and air stones to force oxygen into the tank.
I chose one that looks a little stronger than the others because I expect the water volume to increase with the increase of PVC pipes in the future.


All you have to do is connect the air pump, air tube, and air stone, put the stone in the tank, and plug it in.
The water should now be highly oxygenated.

Environmental improvement #2: Install LED lighting to eliminate the lack of sunlight

I installed one LED light about a meter long on the ceiling.

It is simple to use, just plug it into a household outlet.
After I moved the hydroponics equipment indoors, I was only using soft indoor lighting, so I think the light quantity was not enough.
To be honest, it seems that one LED light is not enough, so I plan to purchase more in the future.

Environmental improvement #3: Covering the water storage tank with a leisure sheet to prevent moss growth

I covered the water storage tank with a light-shielding leisure sheet because I heard that direct light on the circulating water causes moss to form.
I think it would be better to shade the holes in the PVC pipes that don’t have seedlings on them yet, as well as the water supply hose connected to the pumping pump, but I haven’t recovered from the shock of the root rot yet, so I’d like to do it sometime (sometime)

I modified part of the lid of the water storage tank to allow me to run the drain hose, water supply hose, air tube, and power supply.

The top photo is a pipe saw (saw) for PVC pipes, and the bottom is a saw for woodworking.


Growing small tomatoes, all-purpose leeks, basil, and strawberries in an improved hydroponic system

I was not able to revive the lettuce and small tomatoes with root rot.
I don’t know at this stage what was the worst, but in the improved environment, I have been growing mini-tomatoes from cuttings, all-purpose green onions that I bought from the supermarket and left only the roots, basil and strawberries that I got from Home Depot.
The seedlings from Home Depot are sold in pots with soil, so I wash off the soil outside, leave the roots alone, and grow them in PVC tubes.
Water is essential for hydroponics, but we didn’t have a sprinkler (outdoor water supply) at home, so I had a friend lay one for me at a reasonable price.

There are a lot of incidents that can happen.
I feel the greatness of my predecessors who are successfully doing hydroponics.
I would like to study them so that I can be as close as possible to their success.
The lettuce has gone root rot, so the salad has disappeared from our table…

[Hydroponics] Moving the outdoor PVC pipe system indoors and getting it working again.

Using an entire wall of the room, we will try hydroponics using PVC pipes.
The PVC pipe with holes for planting seedlings was not operational in the summer of 2020, but now it is operational and lettuce is growing like crazy.

Preparing to dump the circulating water and bring the equipment into the room.

I would like to move the hydroponics equipment that was experimentally set up outdoors indoors and practice indoor hydroponics in earnest.
The structure of the cultivation system is a PVC pipe, a washing drainage hose, a water storage tank (substituted with a cooler box), a pump, a 12mm inner diameter water hose, a stand (container), a sponge, and seedlings.
The PVC pipe is wrapped with a silver leisure sheet to prevent the water temperature in the pipe from rising too high.
However, in reality, the circulating water temperature was over 30 degrees Celsius when it was set up outdoors in the middle of summer, so it might be better to wrap the leisure sheet than not to wrap it.
After dumping all the water in the PVC pipe and the water storage tank, we were ready to start moving.
To watch the video, click on the link below.

Here you go.

Setting up the unit, PVC pipe, and water tank in the room

Line up the unit, PVC pipe, and water tank in the same way as for the outdoor unit.
We want the water to drain automatically when it reaches a certain level, so we need to place the water tank below the PVC pipe.
Keep the end of the hose inside the tank so that the water that drains from the hose returns to the tank.

Set the small tomato and lettuce seedlings in the PVC pipe.

After setting up the stand, PVC pipe, and water tank, the next step is to set the seedlings in the holes that we cut out.
It’s hard to tell from the picture, but the roots of this lettuce are about 30 cm long.
The roots themselves are white and beautiful because they are grown without soil, only water.
If you put the lettuce in the hole as it is, it will wobble and fall down, so wrap a sponge around the stem to make it a little bigger than the hole, and then insert it to hold it in place.
If you are using seedlings in pots with soil, which you can often find at home centers, fill a bucket with water and wash the soil gently.
When all the soil has been washed, wrap it in a sponge and insert it into the hole in the PVC pipe.

Install a pumping pump in the water storage tank.

Install a pumping pump in the installed water storage tank.
Without it, you can’t start anything.

Connect a hose with an inner diameter of 12mm to the water supply side, and put the hose into the inlet of the PVC pipe.
The size of the hose is perfect, and I’m sure I’m not the only one who gets frustrated every time when connecting it…
There is a suction cup on the bottom of the pump body, so you can fix the pump by simply pressing it against a flat surface inside the water storage tank.

Making water with liquid fertilizer to achieve an EC value of 1.3

I’ve dumped the water in the PVC pipe and the water storage tank outside because it gets very heavy when moving it, so I’ll make water with liquid fertilizer again.
The reason why I set the EC value (like liquid fertilizer concentration) to 1.3 μs/cm (microsiemens) is just because many people do so.
I’ve heard that it’s better to change the concentration according to the growth of the vegetables, but for now, I’ll stick with the EC value of 1.3…
The above article explains how to make concentrated liquid fertilizer for the OAT (formerly Otsuka) house.
Adding 50cc each of No. 1 and No. 2 concentrated liquid fertilizer to 10L of water will produce water with an EC of 1.3.
Depending on the capacity of your water storage tank, you can make water with liquid fertilizer several times.
In my case, I made 40 liters of water 4 times in total and put it in the water storage tank.

Turn on the pump to circulate the water.

Let’s quickly turn on the pump.
Water will be sent from the pump submerged in the water storage tank.
When the water level reaches a certain level, it will be discharged from the drainage hose.
The drained water comes back to the storage tank and is pumped again.
All you have to do is to add water with liquid fertilizer again while monitoring the EC value as the roots of the vegetables absorb water and the overall water volume of the hydroponics system decreases.
The hydroponics system has now been moved.
I just moved the one that was able to operate normally outdoors to indoors, so I don’t have any problems with it.
The mini-tomatoes haven’t turned red yet (there are green fruits), but as for the sunny lettuce and leaf lettuce, they grew quite well in the outdoor cultivation.
I was able to tear them off and serve them on the table every day, which greatly increased my chances of eating lettuce.
Now that we have moved the equipment indoors, the lack of sunlight is going to become a problem.
I wonder how much I can grow using LED fluorescent lights, …

I haven’t received the product yet, but I’m looking forward to it no matter what.
So long.

[Hydroponics] How to make OAT (formerly Otsuka) house concentrated liquid fertilizer and what to do when the EC value doesn’t match.

We are going to try hydroponics using PVC pipes on one wall of the room.
We have already made a frame for the PVC pipe and processed the PVC pipe.
We will grow crops by circulating water in the PVC pipe, but since we will not use soil, the crops will become undernourished if it is just water.
Therefore, I would like to make concentrated liquid fertilizer with OAT (former Otsuka) House’s concentrated liquid fertilizer and add it to the water for fertilization.
To watch the video, click on the link below.

Here you go.

Weighing OAT (former Otsuka House) No. 1 and No. 2 to make concentrated liquid

Weigh the two types of fertilizers from Otsuka House.
There seems to be a liquid fertilizer that is already made called Hyponica, but it seems a bit expensive, so I chose Otsuka House this time.

This time, we will finally make a concentrated liquid in a 2L plastic bottle container, but we will have to mix it in the middle of the process.
If we make 2 liters in a 2 liter PET bottle, it will be difficult to mix, so this time we use half the amount to make 1 liter of concentrated liquid.
Use an electronic scale to measure 150g of Otsuka House No. 1 and 100g of Otsuka House No. 2.
Put the fertilizer into a plastic bottle filled with 1 L of tap water using a wax tube.
You don’t have to use a wax tube or a ladle, anything is fine as long as you can put fertilizer.
When you have finished filling both No. 1 and No. 2 bottles, put the lids on and shake them around so that the water and fertilizer mix well.
No. 1 is smooth and easy to put in, but No. 2 is kind of (sticky?). But No. 2 is kind of (sticky?) like white sugar and hard to put in.
If it’s hard to put in, use disposable chopsticks, a stick, or anything else to push it in.
The resulting concentrated liquid fertilizer is yellowish in No. 1 and transparent in No. 2.

The difference between 200x and 500x concentrated liquid fertilizer

This article explains how to make a concentrated solution for use by diluting it 200 times, but the OAT (formerly Otsuka) house fertilizer manual describes how to make a concentrated solution for use by diluting it 500 times.
For example, if you want to achieve an EC value of 1.3 μs/cm (microsiemens), you will need 50 cc each of No. 1 and No. 2 for a 200-fold dilution and 20 cc each for a 500-fold dilution for 10 L of water.
Either way, the result will be the same, but between measuring 50cc and 20cc, the smaller amount should be harder to measure.
If you mistakenly add 60cc when you need 50cc, you will only get 1.2 times more, but if you mistakenly add 30cc when you need 20cc, you will have added 1.5 times more.
To make it easier to measure the amount of liquid fertilizer for 10 liters of water, we decided to use 200x.

Putting concentrated liquid fertilizer into water

Now, let’s quickly add the concentrated solution we made to the water.
I bought a 10-liter bucket at a 100-yen store to make it easier to see the amount of water.
I don’t know if the bucket will be full when it reaches 10 liters, or if it will reach 10 liters just before the bucket is full, but we’ll keep adding water.
I used an EC meter to measure the EC value of the tap water, and it was 0.146 μs/cm.
If you don’t have an EC meter, you can buy one for about 1,000 yen.

If you don’t have one, buy one at this time.
Measure 50 cc of each of the Otsuka House No. 1 and No. 2 concentrates, add them to the water, and mix them together.
Now you have about 10 liters of water with an EC value of 1.3 μs/cm, in which the liquid fertilizer has dissolved…
But when I actually measured it with the EC meter, it was 2.164 μs/cm, which is less than twice the concentration…
I don’t understand why at all.
I don’t know if it’s the water temperature or the EC meter, but I don’t know why there is such a big difference.
There was a possibility of spillage if I filled the bucket to the brim, so I added water to the very edge of the bucket and measured the EC again, and it dropped to 1.9, but it was still 1.9.
I decided to trust the EC meter this time, and I’d like to solve the problem by bringing the result of 2.164 μs/cm closer to 1.3 μs/cm.

How many liters of water do I need to add to dilute the water to get closer to the target EC value?

I thought I made it exactly right, but somehow the EC value is far from the desired value, just like me.
I know that I should add water to dilute it, but adding water and measuring it, adding water and measuring it, is not the way to go.
But as the amount of water increases to 30L or 50L, it becomes more and more difficult to know how much water to add to dilute the water, doesn’t it?
You can find out the amount of water to add by a simple calculation.
[Current EC value] ÷ [Target EC value] × [Water volume] – [Water volume] ≒ [Required water volume
The above calculation will give you the approximate amount of water you need to add.
The EC value of a bucket of water just barely containing 10 liters of liquid fertilizer was in the 1.9 range, so if we apply the above calculation, we get…
1.9 ÷ 1.3 × 10 – 10 ≒ 4.6
This means that if we add 4.6 liters of water, we should get an EC of 1.3.
I actually added water and measured again, and the EC was 1.21, which seems to be close enough.
Even if the current EC value, the target EC value, or the amount of water changes, I think you can use it by substituting each term.
However, it seems that the appropriate EC value for dilution or fertilization depends on the type of plant and its growth process (I haven’t reached that point yet, and I don’t have any knowledge at all…) The pioneers who have a lot of knowledge and experience are amazing.
I can’t wait to become one.

How much water will be in the PVC pipe?

Now that I have finally reached the point where I can make the concentrated solution and dilute it, it’s time to start circulating water in the processed PVC pipe.
The PVC pipe I bought is called VU100, which is about 10 cm in diameter.
The PVC pipe I bought is about 10 cm in diameter, called VU100, and it is cut into 300 cm pieces, so when it is full, 23 liters of water will enter the PVC pipe.
We have modified the end cap to drain the water when the water level reaches half, so the actual amount of water flowing through the pipe is about 11.5 liters.
We currently have four of these PVC pipes in operation (the remaining one is not in use yet).
Including the water in the storage tank, about 50 liters of water should be circulated by the pump and gravity.
I’ll write about it as soon as it’s ready.
Have a wonderful hydroponic life!

[Hydroponics] PVC pipe processing method! Make your own water circulation cultivation kit with laundry drain hose

We are going to try hydroponics using PVC pipes on one wall of the room.
We are planning to line up five or six PVC pipes horizontally on a wall about 230cm long and 320cm wide, and we have already made a frame to support the PVC pipes.
This time, we will actually process the PVC pipes.
To watch the video, click the link below.

Let’s take a look.

Cut the PVC pipe according to the wall surface.

Prepare the required number of PVC pipes.
Since the length of the room is about 230cm, I thought there would be 5-6 PVC pipes that could be installed considering the height of the vegetables, so I prepared 5 slightly weak PVC pipes.
If you know someone such as an equipment shop owner, you may be able to get some extra PVC pipes.
I got three from a friend of mine who works at an equipment store, and bought two from a material store.

How to mark a straight line on a PVC pipe

Before cutting the PVC pipe, it is easy to cut straight if you draw a line around the part to be cut, but drawing a straight line can actually be difficult.
Prepare a piece of paper large enough to go around the PVC pipe, and wrap it around the part you want to ink.
You can draw a straight line along the edge of the paper with a magic marker.

A pipe saw is recommended over a woodworking saw.

You can also use a wood saw to cut PVC pipes, but it will get stuck in the middle of cutting, making it difficult to continue cutting.
In this case, you can make it a little easier to cut the PVC pipe by turning it slightly toward or away from you.
The top one is a special pipe saw (for cutting pipes) and the bottom one is a wood saw, but you can see the difference in the fineness of the grain.
You can see the difference in the fineness of the blade. The pipe saw has a finer blade, so it can cut smoothly without getting stuck.
The PVC pipe used in this project is 10cm in diameter, which is quite thick, so I chose a pipe saw with a long blade of 30cm.


Processing the end cap for the PVC pipe

Drill a hole in the end cap that attaches to the drainage side of the PVC pipe.
If we drill a hole in the middle, the water level in the PVC pipe will be lower than half of the pipe, so we need to position the hole a little higher so that the water level will be exactly half of the pipe.
Place the actual drain valve against the end cap and mark the center of the hole.
If it is too high, the valve will hit the inside of the end cap when you turn the valve screw and you will not be able to turn it, so be moderate.
Place the tip of the drill blade on the mark and drill the hole with the hole saw.
In the photo above, I am holding the end cap with my foot, but to be honest, this is not a job to be done barefoot. It is usually dangerous.
It is better to fix the end cap in a vise or vice.
The following products can be used for products up to 150mm, so the 100mm end caps used in this project can be fixed securely.

I also ordered the above product, but it didn’t arrive at the time I was working on it, so I ended up fixing everything with my feet while working on it…pointless shopping.

Connecting the drain valve to the laundry drain hose

Now that we have finished drilling holes in the end caps, we can connect the drain valve and the drain hose.
Pull out the threaded part of the drain valve from the inside of the end cap, and attach the drain hose to the threaded part that came out.
The threaded part of the drainage valve was too long to adhere to the end cap even when it was tightly closed, so we cut the excessively long part with a pipe saw to make it adhere.

Make a hole for the seedling in the top of the PVC pipe.

Now that we have finished processing the end caps, we will drill holes in the PVC pipe body for the seedlings.

Measure the length of the crop roots.

If the spacing between the holes is too narrow, the roots of the crops may get tangled up with each other and water may not circulate properly, causing water leakage.
Before drilling holes at appropriate intervals, measure the length of the crop roots and drill holes in the PVC pipe according to the length of the roots.
The photo above is of lettuce, and the length of the roots is about 30 cm from the tip to the thin part, and the lettuce next to it and the small tomatoes at the back are also about 30 cm long.

Marking and drilling holes at equal intervals on the PVC pipe.

Mark 30cm, 60cm, 90cm, etc. from the end of the PVC pipe.
Drill the marked areas with a hole saw in the same way as for the end caps.
There is room for a water supply hole at the far end, so we were able to drill 9 holes in total.
When drilling holes, burrs inevitably appear, so I shaved them off with sandpaper.
This is for injury prevention and appearance.
Chips from cutting with the hole saw and sandpaper accumulate in the pipe, so we washed them away with water.
There was no faucet outside, so I asked a friend who had acquired a PVC pipe to install one for me.
A sprinkler would make it easier to work with water outside, thank you Yoshida.

Caulking the connections to prevent leaks.

We are almost done here, let’s work hard.
The unfinished end cap and PVC pipe, the finished end cap and PVC pipe, the drain valve and the drain hose part need to be caulked.
Let’s start with the drain valve and the drain hose part.
Apply metamorphic silicon to the inside of the cap, and connect the drain valve and the laundry drain hose.
After screwing them in tightly, mask the surface of the cap with masking tape and caulk it.
When you have finished applying the caulk, smooth it out with your fingers.
(Well, maybe you don’t have to use your fingers, but there is something special for that.
Remove the masking tape when you are done.
If you do not remove the tape after applying the caulk, the tape and silicone will stick to each other and become difficult to remove.
Follow the same procedure for other areas.
This is an important process to prevent water leakage.
If you don’t plan to dismantle the pipe in the future, you may want to use “PVC pipe bond”, but in my case, I didn’t use bond because I was thinking about reassembling the pipe and maintaining the clogged roots.
Good or bad…After caulking, I left it for 24 hours and the metamorphic silicon was dry.

I lined up the processed PVC pipes on the frame made for PVC pipes and completed the work.

I was tired after doing these processes for five PVC pipes, but I was able to do it.
These are lined up on a special stand to complete the project.
At the bottom (floor), we placed a kind of water storage tank, and installed a pump to pump water into it. Without the pumping pump, nothing can start.

We pump the water to the water supply port of the top PVC pipe.
When the water level exceeds half, water will flow from the drain hose on the other side.
The end of the drain hose is connected to the water supply port of the second PVC pipe, and when the water level of the second pipe reaches half, water will flow to the third and fourth levels.
The drain hose of the bottom PVC pipe flows to the water storage tank, and the water in the tank is sent to the top PVC pipe again.
I haven’t circulated the water yet because this is an introduction of how to process PVC pipes, but I think it’s probably okay…irresponsible.
Because of the depth of the frame, it is physically possible to put two or three PVC pipes on the same level.
It is possible, but there is a disadvantage that it might be troublesome to take care of the crops planted in the PVC pipes at the back, so I’m thinking of trying one PVC pipe per tier first.
This is how I processed the PVC pipe for hydroponics using a laundry drain hose.
I hope this will be helpful to someone else.








[Hydroponics] Assembling a frame to support multi-stage PVC pipes on the wall with a single pipe.

Using an entire wall indoors, we will try hydroponics using PVC pipes.
We are planning to line up five or six PVC pipes horizontally on a wall about 230cm long and 320cm wide, but considering the 300cm long PVC pipes, the water in them, and the weight of the vegetables, we need to build a rather solid frame.
This time, I was lucky (?). This time, I was lucky enough (?) to find some single-pipe pipes thrown around in the garden, so I processed them to make a box-shaped frame for the PVC pipe.To watch the video, click on the link below.

Here you go.

Cut the single-pipe pipes to fit the wall surface.

First, we need to prepare a single pipe.
The size of the wall in the room where we will be growing hydroponics is 230 cm long and 320 cm wide.
Therefore, we will need four 320cm monotubes for the horizontal, six 230cm monotubes for the vertical, including one in the middle for strength, and 15 short monotubes to support the PVC pipes.
At the moment, we’re thinking of installing one PVC pipe per tier, but since there’s a possibility of adding more pipes in the front, we’ll prepare longer single pipes for the sides so that we can expand them later.
Now let’s cut the single pipe.
I found an old-fashioned high-speed cutter in the work shed, so I’ll use this to cut it.
Later, I noticed that the blade of the cutter was so worn out that the diameter of the blade had become very small.
In this condition, it is impossible to cut a single pipe in one go, so I highly recommend replacing the blade with a new one before the work if you can.
Because you are cutting from the top and bottom (or because you are not very good at it), the cutting surface will be rickety.
If this happens, you will have to do a lot of extra work, such as removing burrs with a sander. I actually had to do this, and deburred a total of 25 pieces.
If you don’t have a high-speed cutter, you can also use a pipe cutter, although it is not suitable for mass cutting.

Also, if you bring in a single pipe, it is not possible, but if you buy a single pipe at a home center, they can cut it for you for a fee.
In my neighborhood home center, it was 200 yen per cut.

Put the fixed base on the cut single tube and stand it up.

Now that all the single-pipe pipes have been cut, we will carry them into the room.
First, fit the fixing base to the vertically extending single pipe.
Next, use the orthogonal clamps to temporarily fasten the shortened single-pipe to the vertical pipe, and raise the single-pipe in a “well” shape.
If the pipe is slanted, level it with a leveling tool, and then tighten it with a ratchet.
Make another set for the opposite side.

Use the orthogonal clamps to assemble the tubes into a box shape.

Next, let’s set up the long single pipe that extends horizontally.
I almost died when one of the tubes fell in my direction while I was working on it, because it was just standing on the wall.
It seems that you need to be very careful when you are working. If it had hit me on the head, it would have been pretty bad.
Even though I was dying, I assembled four horizontal single pipes.
If the center of the PVC pipe bends and breaks, it will cause a terrible situation, so we set up a single pipe in the center to support the center of the PVC pipe.
The next step is to assemble short single pipes for both sides according to the height of the PVC pipe.
When you actually put the PVC pipe on top, it is okay if the PVC pipe itself is level.
I put on a protective cap to prevent injury from the cut surface of the single pipe.
I don’t want to get hurt.

Circulating water with a pump

This completes the stand for PVC pipes using a single pipe.
In order to circulate the water in the PVC pipe, we need a water storage tank (or something like that) and a pump.

First, prepare a tank on the floor and fill it with water.
Use the pump to raise the water up to the top PVC pipe, and when the water in the PVC pipe exceeds a certain amount, discharge the water from the drain hose on the other side.
A drain hose for a washing machine is used for the drainage hose.
When the amount of water in the PVC pipe reaches a certain level, it is discharged from the opposite side and repeated for the third and fourth levels.
The water discharged from the bottom PVC pipe returns to the water storage tank, and the pumping pump raises the water to the top PVC pipe.
When the water in the tank runs out, the water cannot be raised, so watch the water level and refill the tank if it seems low.

More PVC pipes can be added depending on the length of the single pipes on both sides.

We can increase the number of PVC pipes that can be installed per tier by lengthening the short single pipes that we just installed on both sides.
However, since this is a hydroponic cultivation using the wall, I think the maximum number of PVC pipes that can be increased is about three, considering the harvest, care of the vegetables, and ease of lighting. This is just my imagination, though.
The length of the PVC pipe is 300cm this time.
If we assume one plant per 30cm, we can plant 30 plants per tier if we install 3 PVC pipes.
If we increase the number of tiers, we will be able to grow 60, 90, or 120 plants, which is a tremendous amount of vegetables indoors.
This time, we were not talking about how to process PVC pipes, but how to make a PVC pipe stand.
But if you want to make it on a smaller scale, you can use wood or Irector, which is much easier.

In any case, I hope this will be helpful to someone who is thinking of starting hydroponics.

How to use a Switch controller to control minecraft on mac. Setting public [Joystick Mapper].

I installed the mac version of minecraft, but… keyboard control is too difficult!
If you’re not used to playing computer games, it’s impossible to play the PC version of minecraft with a keyboard.
If you’ve installed minecraft on your mac without realizing it, you’re probably regretting it.
Don’t worry.
Use the Pro Controller (or Joy-Cons) for your Switch.

You can use a home console controller to control minecraft on your mac!
Please explain it in a video! If you want to learn how to do this, please go to

The following article will help you to record a video of playing with a pro-controller from a third person’s point of view, and watch a replay video.

Connecting the Switch controller to the mac via Bluetooth

First, let’s connect the controller to the mac via Bluetooth. It’s easy.
Setting up the controller
There is a small button at the top of the controller (near the charging port), press and hold it.
The way to do this will differ depending on the type of controller, so check it out as you go.
Bluetooth settings on the mac
Go to [System Preferences] > [Bluetooth] and click [Turn Bluetooth On].
If the controller is ready, the name of the controller connected via Bluetooth will appear in the [Device] field, and click on it.
If successful, [Connected] will be displayed.

Connected successfully! Okay, let’s get started with minecraft… but it doesn’t work…

That’s right. The world is not so easy.
You can’t control your mac with the controller just by connecting it via Bluetooth.
Let’s continue with the explanation.

Using mapping software to link controller buttons and keyboard [Joystick Mapper

The Bluetooth connection is successful, so it seems like it should work, but unfortunately it doesn’t.
In order to link the controller’s buttons to the keyboard, you will need something called mapping software.
In this case, we will use a software called “Joystick Mapper”.
Joystick Mapper

Unfortunately, there is a fee.
However, we can’t turn our backs on it to improve the usability.
Do you want to play minecraft comfortably with a controller on your mac?
Then buy it. Money is the answer.
In fact, as an amateur who played minecraft with a pro controller after using Joystick Mapper and mapping the settings as described below, I found that it was about 80% operability with the controller compared to 20% operability with the keyboard.
For more details on how to set up Joystick Mapper, please refer to “Joystick Mapper: How to Use a Mac with Joystick or Pro Controller”.
Anyway, it’s totally different. It’s a totally different experience.


How to use the Joystick Mapper to control a mac with a joystick or pro controller.

I’ve given it a lot of thought, and I’ll post the settings that I think are best at this point.
After connecting your mac to the controller via Bluetooth, use Joystick Mapper to configure the settings as shown in the table below.
Please do not change the control settings in minecraft.

In the above figure, after clicking [scan], press one button on the controller, and the button information (Hat, #0, Down, etc.) will be detected automatically.
Change the [keyboard key] part and the [Q] part as shown in the table below.
In this setting, buttons that are not used by the controller are not registered.
[(scan) / controller control / automatic / automatic / change as needed / change (minecraft movement) ] The view will be as shown above.
Left cross key
Press the right cross / Hat / #0 / Right / keyboard key / T (open chat)
Press the Up arrow key / Hat / #0 / Up / keyboard key / F5 (to switch viewpoints)
Lower cross key / Hat / #0 / Down / keyboard key / Q (drop/throw selected item)
Left stick
Left / Axis / #0 / – / keyboard key / A (move left)
Right / Axis / #0 / + / keyboard key / D (Right)
Up / Axis / #1 / – / keyboard key / W (Forward)
Down / Axis / #1 / + / keyboard key / S (Backward)
Right stick
Left / Axis / #2 / – / Mouse Motion / Left
Turn right / Axis / #2 / + / Mouse Motion / Right
Up / Axis / #3 / – / Mouse Motion / Up (Raises the viewpoint)
Down / Axis / #3 / + / Mouse Motion / Down (point of view down)
Right Button
Press B / Button / 0 / / Keyboard key / Shift (Left) (Sneak / Crouch / Descend)
Press A / Button / 1 / Keyboard key / Space (jump / press twice for flight mode / altitude increase)
Press Y / Button / 2 / Keyboard key / Escape (Close various screens / Return) *Special specification
Press X / Button / 3 / Keyboard key / E (open inventory)
Index finger LR
Press L / Button / 4 / / Mouse Wheel / Up (move the slider to the leftmost item) (move to the left item)
Press R / Button / 5 / Mouse Wheel / Down (move the slider to the leftmost position) (move to the right item)
Press ZL / Button / 6 / Mouse Button / 1 (Secondary click) (use item / place block)
Press ZR / Button / 7 / Mouse Button / 0 (Main click) (Attack / Destroy)

Differences between minecraft for nintendo switch and the controls

If you set it up in Joystick Mapper, 80% of the operations will be the same.
However, there will be some discomfort (about 20%).
The following is an explanation of the 20% of discomfort.
Cursor operations in the menu screen and item screen
You use the right stick to control the cursor in the menu screen and item screen.
The left stick is unresponsive.
Deciding and Returning in Menu and Item Screens
To make a decision, use [ZR (Main click)] instead of the [A] button.
To return to the play screen from the menu screen, or to close the item screen, press [Y (Escape)] instead of [B].

Once you get used to this, you will be able to play minecraft quite comfortably.
Now, use the Switch controller and have a fun minecraft life on your mac!